English Japanese Dictionary

English Grammar

Another great learning experience from PLOTIT. We are happy to share our experience and knowledge on wold's common language ENGLISH. Explore and practice the grammar and communication skills. 

Wishing the best to become a great communicator.

 

Parts of Speech

01-02-Noun

01-03-Adjective

01-04-Verb

01-05-Pronouns

01-06 Adverb

01-07-Preposition

01-08--Conjunction

01-09--Interjection

Tenses

02-01-01-Present Simple

02-02-01-Present Continuous

02-03-01-Present Perfect

02-04-01-Present Perfect Continuous

02-04-02-Difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous

03-01-01-Past Simple

03-02-01-Past Continuous

Vocabulary

Idiom

Topic for discussion

 

01-Parts of Speech

Parts of speech are the categories of words based on their function within a sentence. There are eight parts of speech that we are learning.

1) Noun 2) Adjective 3) Verb 4) Pronoun 5) Adverb 6) Preposition 7) Conjunction 8) Interjection

01-02-Noun

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea:

Eg: My name is Paul

 

Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. 

Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things.

Eg: Doctor, Nurse, Teacher, Singer, Zeebra, Bird, Horse, Goat, Fish, Beach, Park, School, Stadium, Bed, Cake

Proper nouns are names for particular people, places, or things

Eg: Mary, Beethoven, Dr. James, Indian, Italian, Egypt, India, Monday, January, Mount Everest, Niagra falls

Tip: Proper noun always begins with a capital letter

Singular Noun - We use a singular noun when we are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing

Eg: A bus, A Butterfly

Plural Noun - We use Plural noun when we are talking about two or more people, animals, places, or things

Eg: Buses, Butterflies

Collective Noun - words for groups of people, animals, or things

Eg: A family, A band of musicians, A bunch of keys

Masculine Noun - words for men, boys, and male animals

Eg: Rooster, Bridegroom, Father, Uncle

Feminine Nouns - words for women, girls, and female animals

Eg: Hen, Bride, Mother, Aunt

Common-gender nouns - words used for both males and females

Eg: Dancers, Doctors, 

Neuter nouns - words used for neither male nor female

Eg: Bench, Mirror

01-03-Adjective

Adjectives are words that describe the noun. It answers the questions, What kind? Which one(s)? How many? How much?

Example:

Adjective of Quality- - Paul is a good teacher, This drink is very sweet

Adjective of Quantity- - I live in a small house

Adjective of Number - Johny paid one thousand rupees for the jacket

This is a useful bag   –  This is a useless bag

adjectives of origin - an Indian food, This is a Scottish drink

Some adjectives tell you the color of things - Roses are red

Some adjectives tell you the size of the nouns - She is very tall

The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare two people or things - Eg: old, older - The word than is often used with comparative objectives. Eg: I am older than John

The superlative form of an adjective is used to compare three or more nouns Eg: hot hotter hottest. Good, Better, Best

Eg: This is the hottest drink that I ever had

01-04-Verb

The verb in a sentence talks about some action or activity.

Eg: read, run, cook, sing

Paul is reading a book

I have watched this film.

Transitive verb -  action has a definite recipient or object

eg: I am solving a maths problem, Shiji is painting the kitchen walls 

Intransitive Verb - These verbs also show action but here there is no specific object on which the action is being done. 

eg:  I am solving, Shiji is painting

01-05-Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun to avoid repeating it.

eg- I, you, they, it, we, she, he, him, her, us, them, me, myself, yourself, themselves, itself, who, whom, what, which, these, that, those

Eg: Joyson is a tech geek. He passed out in 2005. was his junior. He used to study himself

My family and I live in a big city. We have a small apartment.

Personal Pronoun - They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject (does the action shown by the 
verb) of the verb in a sentence. 

Eg: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Eg: Paul is my friend. He is a teacher.

Personal pronoun also includes me, you, him, her, us, them. These pronouns are used as an object (receives the action shown by the verb) of the verb in a sentence

Anoop, I told you to clean your desk

Tony likes riding my scooter. I sometimes lend it to him

 

Reflexive Pronouns - myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb

Eg: I made this video myself

We organized the get together all by ourselves

Interrogative Pronouns - The words who, whom, whose, what, and which are called interrogative pronouns. (used to ask questions)

Eg: Who is he talking to?

Whom are you working with?

Which one do you prefer?

Whose is this diary?

What is the time?

Demonstrative Pronouns - The words this, these, that, and those are called demonstrative pronouns.

Eg: This is Tesnys car (We use this for singular in number)

These are your keys (These are used for the things multiple in number)

Those are your keys

Those who are away today must report to me

Look at those stars

I would like to go to that country

Three groups of pronoun - First-person, Second person, and third person.

First-person - First-person indicates the speaker (I, me, we, us)

Eg: I think I lost my key

We will go out today

Second person Person spoken to is called the second person (you)

Eg: You should come back on Saturday.

Third-person - The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the third person. (he, him, she. her, it, they, them)

Eg: Dinu used his mobile phone for meetings

Subject - does the action shown by the verb

Eg: Paul is my friend, he is a teacher

 

Object - receives the action shown by the verb

Eg: Anoop, I told you to clean the desk

01-06-Adverb

An adverb describes the verb or adjectives in a sentence. It tells you about the action or the way something is done. Adverb helps to answer questions like How, When, Where, and To What extent things are done. Adverbs often end in 'ly'

 

Eg: Slowly, quietly, sharply, weekly, easily, early

I arrived too early

I ran quickly 

I slept peacefully yesterday

She is always talking loudly

It is raining heavily

Adverbs of manner - describe the way something is done

He safely drove the car to the hospital

He played skillfully for the team

Adverbs of time - describe when something happens

I arrived early

Paul has arrived lately

Paul has just arrived

I will finish this work tomorrow

It is raining again

I will come today

Adverbs of place - tells where it happens

Dinu, come here

Where is Justin?

Please keep your mobile phones there

Let's have our family worship upstirs

01-07-Preposition

A proposition is a word that connects one thing with another. It gives information such as direction, time, and place.

 

Usually, proposition comes after the verb and before the noun or pronoun.

 

The below list provides some of the propositions that we often use. 

after, at, around, about, across, along, against, among, away from, apart from, between, behind, before, because of, by, beyond, but, during, except for, for, from, in, into, inside, instead of, near, on, onto, out of, over, of, since, through, to, toward, under, up, until, with

The ball is on the table

The ball is in the box

The ball is under the table

The ball is near to the car

Preposition of Time

This movie was released in the '90s (periods of time, seasons, a longer period of time)

I will complete this in five weeks

The earth will be a beautiful place in the coming future

I will be ready in 10 minutes.

Do not worry Paul, it all happened in the past

I woke up in the morning

I will be there in 10 minutes

The team managed to complete the work in two weeks rime

I was born in 1981

The last visit was in the middle of June

We arrived in time 

We arrived on time

What is your plan on this weekend?

What is your plan at this weekend? (Specific time)

I will come at 10 PM

Our meeting will finish at 7:30 PM

I will meet you on Thursday (Day of the week)

I can come on Monday

It is a holiday on March 3rd.

We all need to be there by noon

At the moment, I am not free

Sam is busy at present.

We both reached at the same time

Please return my can by this Friday (No later)

Preposition of Place

My car key is in your pocket

Can you please come in?

Keep this luggage in your room

I like to swim in the lake

Shiji works in the translation team

Exception - He is on the board (Elected for a high-level committee)

There is a lot of sugar in this Juice

Do you have milk in your tea?

I live in India

I live in Cochin

She is in the car

I saw it in our book (always use in, for anything with paper, eg" book, comic, newspaper);

He was on the phone (Always use on anything related to electronic devices, except for email Eg:It was there in your email)

I saw it on a TV program

It was on the internet

The clock on the wall

He is coming on a Bus

He is living on 7th street

George live on the second floor of this building

Can you please sign on this paper?

Our closest supermarket is on 7th avenue

Asish is still at his office

I am standing at platform number 2

I will meet you at Platform number one

We have to stop at Jerrys house

I had my lunch at Mathew's house

I will meet you at Smitha's house

I am waiting by the car

They live near the junction

Preposition of Directions

Jonathan came into my room

She is in the room

She is gone into the house (movement)

He was thrown out of the campus (movement - outside)

Baby is trying to get on to the table (Movement towards upside)

He fell off from the cycle (Movement towards downside)

I jumped over the fence

The ball is under the table

The snake coiled around the tree

Come along with me

Can you see the bridge across the river?

The papers were spread across the table

the train came through a tunnel

01-08-Conjunction

Conjunction is a connecting word in a sentence. It can be used to connect words, phrases, and sentences.

Eg: or, and, but, so

Do you like coffee or tea?

I can come but not at 10 AM

We can divide conjunction into three categories. 1) Coordinative, 2) Subordinate, 3) Corelative

Coordinative Conjunction: Connects words that are independent of each other. We use them when we wanted to give equal emphasis on two main clauses. There are seven coordinating conjunctions. They are: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)

Eg: I eat at the Kochin bakery every day, for they serve the best snacks (explaining why, same as because)

She was tired the next day, for she was working all night.

I don't have rice and sugar at my home. (similar ideas)

Justin and Paul love trucking.

Paul did not like Math nor did he like English. (Two negative clauses)

By the way, neither Alex nor I drink.
George is very strict, but kind (Contrasting ideas)

I bought chicken but not the masala

Do you like coffee or tea? (Alternatives, Choice)

Did the butterfly’s wing come about by evolution? Or was it designed?
I haven’t seen that movie, yet so don’t tell me the story (contrasts the first statement)

He did not prepare the talk, yet it was nice

I am struggling to speak English fluently, so I have joined this course (reason)

It was raining heavily, so I stayed at home

Subordinating Conjunction: They unite independent and dependant clauses. (We can not separate the sentence) Some of the subordinative conjunctions are given below.

Time and Place

After, before, when, since, till, until, as soon as, once, whenever, where, whereas, wherever

Cause

as, because, since, so that, now that, as if, in order that, 

Contrast

though, although, even though, whereas

Condition

while, if, unless, than, whether, as much as, whereas, even if, even though, if only, in order to, so that

Relative Pronoun

Who, Whoever, whose, whom

Relative Adjective

that, whatever, which

Eg: We took an umbrella (independent clause) since it was cloudy. (dependant clauses)

Since they are busy, I decided to wait.

I did not speak to him because I was angry with him

We want to clean the room before he comes

After Anoop left office, Asish played music

I met them when I was in Delhi

If you find out my phone, please let me know

You will not speak English unless you practice it

Although he speaks seldom, he says meaningful ideas

Though it's snowing, she went out

English class is very interesting whereas the maths class is boring.

You must decide whether you go today or tomorrow.

She went to the hall that my father went to

The car which I drive is very expensive

He drives an old car even though he is rich

When I was in your age, I used to play this game

As it was a holiday, we decided to go out

This is the place where we lived

Correlative Conjunction: always appear in pairs. This conjunction relates one sentence element to another.

 

Eg: either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also, 

I can handle the classes for both computer hardware and software (Both clauses are true)

Both Paul and Susan are good at maths

I can drive either a car or a scooter. (Choice)

In my next weekend, I will either prepare Biriyani or Tandoori

In my opinion, Either Sunny or Jimmy  will select for this Job

Neither Anoop nor Paul has liked the food (Both the choice are negative, opposite of both-and)

He not only plays the musical keyboard but also sings well

Not only Paul but also Shiji worked in this team

01-09-Interjection

An interjection is a word that you say in between sentences or thoughts to express a sudden feeling.

Eg: Wow, Yahoo, Ouch, Oops, Aah

Wow! That's wonderful

Hey! What are you saying?

Oh! I am sorry to hear that

Well done! Keep it up

Hey! Come on

02-Tenses

Tense in English grammar refers to the time(past present, or future) and aspect (Completed or uncompleted)

Eg: Time - Will Sing (future), Sings (Present), Sang (Past)

Aspect - will be singing (future), is singing (Present) was singing (Past)

There are 12 tenses in English grammar. They are

1) Present Temple, 2)Present Continuous, 3) Present Perfect, 4)Present Perfect continuous 

5) Past Simple, 6) Past Continuous, 7) Past perfect, 8)Past Perfect Continuous

9) Future Simple, 10) Future Continuous, 11) Future Perfect, 12) Future Perfect Continuous

02-01-01-Present Simple

Situations where we use Present Simple

1) Expresses general truth or facts

The sun rises in the east

I work in a hospital

Sabu plays guitar

2) Customary action, or something which is permanent.

I read the Bible every day

3) Expresses frequency of an action

He never takes the scooter after the accident

4) Stative Verbs - Thoughts, opinions, feelings, emotions, 5 senses

I love Pizza

5) Schedules

Our work starts at 8:00 AM

 

6) Actions that are happening in the near future

I have a program at 5:00 PM

Rule

  • For subjects I, we, you, they just use the verb. Such as read, play, like, live, work, do, have

  • For subjects he, she, it use the verb + s form such as reads, plays, likes, lives, works, does, has (Applies only for positive sentences)

She lives here

I live here

He is busy

He is not busy

Is he busy?

They are busy

They are not busy

Are they busy?

I do work on Saturdays

I don't work on Saturdays (Applies to you, we, they)

Do you work on Saturdays?

She works in this office

She doesn't work in this office

​Does she work here? Yes, she does.

It doesn't work, we need to replace it

Does it work?

They work here

Do they work here?

 

Anoop does eat rice

Anoop doesn't eat rice

You play well

You do not play well

 

Shiji enjoys music

I go to college at 10:00 AM

Venad Express leaves at 6:30 PM

Paul rarely takes his car to the office

Do you work here?

Where do you live?

How often do you work?

02-02-01-Present Continuous/Present Progressive

Actions that are happening now or at present

Rule

  • For subjects he, she, it, use the be verb is

  • For subjects you, we, they use the be verb are

  • For the subject I use am

  • Add the ing form of the verb

Situations where we use Present Continous

1) Currently happening

Sabu is playing Guitar

I am learning English,

I am not learning English

Are you learning English?

They are learning English

Anoop is watching a video,

My computer is not working

The weather is nice, It is not raining now

We are having dinner now, can you please call me later?

2) Actions that are in progress, you may not be doing that at present

You are preparing for the exam,

I am doing exercise on these days

I am not doing exercise on these days

Anoop and Rahul are working at a translation office,

Saritha is preparing for her dance competition 

Is Saritha preparing for her dance competition?

3) Actions that are happening in the near future

Shiji and I are going to Cochin tomorrow,

They are going to write their exam in June,

Shiji is meeting her friends tomorrow.

They are not going to write their exam in June

Are they going to write their exam in June?

02-03-01-Present Perfect

Rule

  • Subject + have/has + Main Verb (Past Participle)

  • For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have

  • For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has

  • Do not use present perfect for finished times such as yesterday, last month, etc.

  • Can use for unfinished times such as today, this week, this month, etc.

Situations where we use Present Perfect

1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and its time is not important or unknown

I have done my work

I have been to China (Not important when they happened)

I have completed the translation work

Someone has eaten my food

2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and continue to the present

Sabu has played the guitar since 2018

They have been married for five years

I have lived here for three years

I have worked here since 2018

Anoop and Paul have known each other for ages

We haven't seen that film yet

3)For something that happened in the past but is important at present

I have lost my keys (Still keys are missing)

Paul has gone to the office, you can come back in the evening

4) To talk about actions that are happened in the recent past

I have just gone there

I have painted my home recently

I have just spoken to him

Sam has just seen his new manager

He has cleared the table just now

They have already finished it

George has recently been sick

5)Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now

I have seen that video several times 

Smitha has visited us frequently 

I have visited this place frequently

 

Negative forms

I have not been to the United States

It has not rained since last June

My classmates have not done any exams since last month

Tom has never eaten this food

Questions

Has Anoop completed his work? - Yes, he has or No, he has not

Have they completed the work? - Yes, they have or No, they have not

Have you ever been there?

How long have you been married?

How long have you known each other?

What books have you read?

Who has Anoop talked to?

Has Smitha had dinner?

Has he bought a new phone?

Have you ever visited China?

Have you eaten enough?

02-04-01-Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive

Used to connect past and present

Rule

  • Subject + have been/has been + Main Verb+ing

  • For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have been

  • For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has been

  • Stative verbs are not be used

Situations where we use Present Perfect Continuous

1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and still continues now

Sabu has been playing the guitar for the last 1 hour

I have been cooking breakfast

You have been studying English for sometime

Anoop has been learning Maths for sometime

He has been waiting here for five hours

Anoop and I have been working since 5 AM

Joyson has been practicing a lot 

2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and it just finished now

I have been trying to call you for the past one hour

We have been waiting for you

I am tired because I have been studying all night

The road is wet because It has been raining 

Questions

Have you been thinking to change your home?, Yes, I have or No I haven't

Have you been going to the hospital?

Has he been helping you? Yes he has or No he hasn't

Have you been learning to swim?

What have you been doing?

Why has he been feeling tired?

How has Anoop been doing?

Negative

You haven't been studying

Shiji has not been studying lately

Joy has not been eating breakfast these days

Stative Verbs (No Physical action involved)

I have been loving him a lot (Incorrect usage)

I love him a lot

He has been liking this food (Incorrect usage)

He has liked this food

They have been understanding the secrete recipe (Incorrect usage)

They have understood the secrete recipe 

02-04-02-Difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous

 

1) Stative verbs are not be used with Present Perfect Continuous 

I have known him for years

I have been knowing him for years (Wrong usage)

2) No real differences in some verbs such as Study, Live, Work in both tenses

I've lived in Kerala for three years

I've been living in Kerala for three years

I've studied music since 2020

I've been studying music since 2020

Paul has worked here for 1 year

Paul has been working here for 1 year

3) Impossible to express how many and how much with Present Perfect continuous

Smitha has eaten three pieces of Pizza this morning

Smith has been eating three pieces of Pizza this morning (Wrong usage)

4) Present Perfect focuses on the completion of the action, whereas Present Perfect continuous often focuses on the action itself

I have played the song 

I have been playing the song 

5) Present Perfect continuous can be used to talk about situations that are not permanent.

I have been sleeping badly

I have been getting up early for my Job

03-01-01-Past Simple

This tense mostly used by all of us.

Used to express anything that had happened in the past (It's finished and over)

Eg: I played

Rule

  • Subject (I, You, We, They, She, He, It) + Past Tense of the verb - Verb+ed (often)

 

Situations where we use Past Simple

1) Completed Past Events or Actions

Sabu Played the Guitar

They watched the film yesterday (Recent Past)

He lived here a long time ago (Distant Past)

2 )Actions

Anoop talked to his overseer (One Action)

John came into my room, switched on the music, and sat down  (Many Action)

3) Duration in past

They sat at the park all-day

We talked on the phone for one hour

I lived in Cochin for two years

4) Past Facts

I studied music when I was a kid

He didn't like vegetables before

Did you study in Cochin when you were a kid?

Negative

We did not work (didn't) work

Smitha did not call me

They did not pay the tuition fee

Questions

Did they work?

Did Smitha call you?

Did they pay the tuition fee?

Did they work yesterday?

When did they work?

How long did you wait for me?

03-02-01-Past Continuous/Past Progressive

 

Used to express past events and actions at the precise moment in past

It highlights a period of duration that continued in the past for any action or event.

Or to emphasize it went on for some time.

 

Rule

  • Subject + Past Tense of the to be verb (was, were, as a Helping verb) + Verb+Ing form 

    • Subject + was/were + Verb+ing​

  • Stative verbs are not be used (Know, hate, love, like, need, want, own)

For subjects I, He, She, It - Use was

For Subjects You, We, They Use were

Eg: I was playing from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM

Situations where we use Past Continuous

1) Period of time in the past

I was playing from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM

2) A particular moment in the past

They were studying at 11:00 AM

In 2009 we were living in Canada

3) Continuing when interrupted

They were studying when I arrived

4) Planned action in the past

I was thinking to call you (Think, have, feel - These verbs can be used both as Stative and Dynamic)

5) Polite request

I was wondering if you could help me

Negative

it was not working

I was not listening 

I was not playing

I wasn't sleeping

You weren't working

It was not raining when we went out

Questions

Was it working?

Was he playing?

Were you working?

Where was he playing?

How long were they playing?

Where was Paul going?

Where were you going?

What were you doing at 3 PM on Friday?

03-03-01-Past Perfect

  • To talk about two or more actions that happened in the past, and to express which one started first

  • Can express which one was started first among the two actions. 

  • Express the first action in Past perfect Tense 

Eg: When we arrived the train had left

The program had started before I arrived

Rule

Subject + had + Past Participle of the main verb

eg: I had played 

Situations where we use Past Perfect

1) Short or long time in the past

I had cooked breakfast before the guest arrived (I'd cooked)

When I called him, he had gone to the office (He'd gone)

I had had my breakfast when I left home (I'd)

Before we moved, we had already sold our property (We'd)

He had worked in this office since 2020

2) Multiple actions in past

Before Paul constructing the new home,

he had prepared the plan,

he had seen few model houses,

he had obtained the necessary approvals.

Negative

I had not worked (hadn't)

I had not played

I had not paid the money

They had not called

Questions

Had you completed the work yesterday?

Had they gone already?

Had it played correctly? No, It hadn't

Where had you worked before joining here?

Who had you worked with earlier?

When had you worked there?

Have you had food before you left home? Yes I had

03-04-01-Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive

To talk about something that had started in the past and continued in the past.

Eg: I had been living in Kerala from 2000 to 2010

I had been working in Kerala before I moved to Delhi

Rule

  • Subject + had been + main verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)

  • Stative verbs are not to be used

Eg: They had been waiting for a long time

Paul had been feeling unwell since yesterday

Situations where we use Past Perfect Continuous

 

1)Past Events for a duration

It had been raining all day long

They had been waiting for a long time

2)Activity happening before another event

We had been practicing tennis before it started to rain (We'd)

3)To express the duration

They had been working on that project for six months (They'd)

Paul had been feeling unwell since yesterday

4)To express a pattern or routine in the past

I h:ad been practicing the songs every day before my piano stopped working (I'd)

5)To express the cause 

He was very exhausted because he had been practicing the song all night.(He'd)

Negative

I had not been working (hadn't)

Questions

Had you been working on that project? Yes, he had or No he hadn't

Had you been planning a trip? 

Where had you been working before?

How long had you been working?

04-01-01-Future Simple

Used to communicate about future, or after now.

We can express planned future with Present continuous or with the phrase going to

Eg: I going to meet Paul tomorrow, I'm meeting Paul tomorrow.

But if it is an unplanned or formal situations we use Future simple.

Eg: I will meet Paul tomorrow

Rule

  • Subject + will + main verb (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)

  • Do not use the contractions in formal sentences

  • Do not use will with conditional clauses

Situations where we use Future Simple

Formal and informal programs;

The convention will begin at 8:30 AM

I will come today

Planned or unplanned events

PLOTIT will release a new course on December 2nd.

I think he will come tomorrow

I will pay in cash

Predictions

As per whether forecast, it will rain today

I don't think he will work tomorrow

immediate future 

I will be there in five minutes 

Paul will pick you up from railway station

May be the program will finish in 1 hour

Promising

I will come back in 10 minutes

Offering

Tom will help you to complete the wok

Conditional clauses

I will see you, if I will visit Kerala (Wrong usage)

I will see you, if I visit Kerala

Same rule applies with when, as soon as, before, after 

Negative

Tom will not help you to complete the wok

I will not come back in 10 minutes

Questions

Will you come back in 10 minutes?

Will you work tomorrow? Yes I will (No contraction) or No I won't (Informal)

Will you come on time? Yes I will

04-01-02-Shall or Will

Shall is an archaic usage. You will see shall instead of will in old books

 

We use shall when we offer something

Eg: Shall I get you a coffee?

We use shall when we ask something politely

04-02-01-Future Continuous/Progressive

Future Continuous - Shows it is continuous for some time, or for a period of duration in future

eg: I will be working from 8:00 AM to 10:AM

Rule

  • Subject + will be + verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)

  • Stative verbs are not to be used in future continuous.

Situations where we use Future Continuous

Duration of time

I will be travelling from 7th to 10th of next month

A moment in a period of time

I will be travelling on 8th of next month

Activities that are continues together

Next week, Paul will be taking classes on English and Jim will be presenting the slides

Polite questions

Will you be attending the meeting tomorrow?

Negative

Tom will not be working tomorrow

Questions

Will you be coming tomorrow?

Will Shiji be attending the party tomorrow? Yes, she will or No She won't

Will they be watching this movie?

How long they will be working?

Where they will be going?

04-03-01- Future Perfect

Future Perfect is an advanced tense, which can be used in:

1) An action that will be completed before a specific time in the future 

2) An action that will be completed before an another action in the future

Rule

  • Subject + will have + Past Participle of the verb (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)

Eg: They will have finished the food before you reach

Situations where we use Future Perfect

Before a specific time in future

By next July, I will have finished my post graduation and IELTS exams

Tom will have arrived by 10:00 PM

Shiji will have left the office by 6:00 PM

We will have taken the vaccine before June

By next June, I will have been completed my 10 year service in this company

By 8:00 AM, Jim will have had his breakfast

Anoop will have finished the work by tomorrow.

Before a specific action

They will have finished the food before you reach

I will have prepared all the foods before the program starts

By the time he gets to the station, the train will have left

Negative

I will not have prepared all the foods before the program starts

Doctor will not have arrived by that time

Anoop will not have finished his work by tomorrow.

Questions

Will you have arrived by 6:00 PM?

Smitha, will you have arrived office by then?

Will She have left the office by 5:00 PM?

Will Anoop have finished the work by tomorrow?

04-04-01- Future Perfect Continuous

  • Future Perfect Continuous tense is also called Future Perfect Progressive Tense

  • We express the continuity of a future event, Emphasis goes to the future event's continuity.

  • Eg: By next week, I will have been studying the English course for one month

  • If two actions take place in the future, the first one which will be continued is Future Perfect Continuous Tense and the second one is Simple Present Tense.

Rule

  • Subject + will have been + verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)

  • Stative verbs are not be used (know, believe, realise, love, hate, own, belong)

Situations where we use Future Perfect

Continuous event at a specific time in the future

Next years, I will have been completing 50 years of service in this company.

By the time I arrive in Kochi, I will have been travelling for 12 hours

Before another action in the future

Paul will have been travelling to London before he reach India​

They will have been waiting there for one hour by the time I meet them.

Negative

They will not have been waiting there for one hour by the time I meet them.

Questions

Will I have been travelling for 12 hours?

Will you have been waiting for 2 hours?

Vocabulary 

Alacrity - Promptness, Eagerness, Readiness 

Amass - Accumulate

Ascetic - Avoiding physical pleasure and living a simple life often for religious sake

Baffle - Confused, Unable to understand 

Benefactor - Someone who gives money to help an organization, society, person

Beguile - to persuade, attract or interest someone, sometimes in order to deceive them

Bland - Dull or boring, lacking taste or strong flavors (for food)

Belligerent - Wish to like or argue

Cacophony - an unpleasant mixture of sounds, harsh sound

Candid - honest and telling the truth

Capricious - Changing mood or behavior suddenly and unexpectedly

Charisma - Some people have a natural ability to influence other people 

Clandestine - Planned or done in secret

Colossal - Extremely large

Chilling - frightening

Deafening - Very noisy

Destitute - Very poor

Despondency - Heartache, Desolation 

Excruciating - Very painful

Exuberant - Cheerful, profound, hearty, vivacious, ebullient

Hearken - Attend, Hear, Heed

Heave - Lift, pull, hoist, raise

Gleaming - Very Shiny

Paradisiacal - heavenly, divine, godlike, godly

Petrified - frightened

Rule the roost - be in complete control, Dominate

Revitalize - Boost, cheer 

toss - lift, pull, haul

Void - Emptiness

Idiom

Do not judge a book by its cover

The first impression is the last impression

Topic for discussion

Do you prefer a joint family or a nuclear family?

 
 
 

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