Parts of Speech
Topic for discussion
01-Parts of Speech
Parts of speech are the categories of words based on their function within a sentence. There are eight parts of speech that we are learning.
1) Noun 2) Adjective 3) Verb 4) Pronoun 5) Adverb 6) Preposition 7) Conjunction 8) Interjection
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea:
Eg: My name is Paul
Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns.
Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things.
Eg: Doctor, Nurse, Teacher, Singer, Zeebra, Bird, Horse, Goat, Fish, Beach, Park, School, Stadium, Bed, Cake
Proper nouns are names for particular people, places, or things
Eg: Mary, Beethoven, Dr. James, Indian, Italian, Egypt, India, Monday, January, Mount Everest, Niagra falls
Tip: Proper noun always begins with a capital letter
Singular Noun - We use a singular noun when we are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing
Eg: A bus, A Butterfly
Plural Noun - We use Plural noun when we are talking about two or more people, animals, places, or things
Eg: Buses, Butterflies
Collective Noun - words for groups of people, animals, or things
Eg: A family, A band of musicians, A bunch of keys
Masculine Noun - words for men, boys, and male animals
Eg: Rooster, Bridegroom, Father, Uncle
Feminine Nouns - words for women, girls, and female animals
Eg: Hen, Bride, Mother, Aunt
Common-gender nouns - words used for both males and females
Eg: Dancers, Doctors,
Neuter nouns - words used for neither male nor female
Eg: Bench, Mirror
Adjectives are words that describe the noun. It answers the questions, What kind? Which one(s)? How many? How much?
Adjective of Quality- - Paul is a good teacher, This drink is very sweet
Adjective of Quantity- - I live in a small house
Adjective of Number - Johny paid one thousand rupees for the jacket
This is a useful bag – This is a useless bag
adjectives of origin - an Indian food, This is a Scottish drink
Some adjectives tell you the color of things - Roses are red
Some adjectives tell you the size of the nouns - She is very tall
The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare two people or things - Eg: old, older - The word than is often used with comparative objectives. Eg: I am older than John
The superlative form of an adjective is used to compare three or more nouns Eg: hot hotter hottest. Good, Better, Best
Eg: This is the hottest drink that I ever had
The verb in a sentence talks about some action or activity.
Eg: read, run, cook, sing
Paul is reading a book
I have watched this film.
Transitive verb - action has a definite recipient or object
eg: I am solving a maths problem, Shiji is painting the kitchen walls
Intransitive Verb - These verbs also show action but here there is no specific object on which the action is being done.
eg: I am solving, Shiji is painting
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun to avoid repeating it.
eg- I, you, they, it, we, she, he, him, her, us, them, me, myself, yourself, themselves, itself, who, whom, what, which, these, that, those
Eg: Joyson is a tech geek. He passed out in 2005. I was his junior. He used to study himself
My family and I live in a big city. We have a small apartment.
Personal Pronoun - They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject (does the action shown by the
verb) of the verb in a sentence.
Eg: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Eg: Paul is my friend. He is a teacher.
Personal pronoun also includes me, you, him, her, us, them. These pronouns are used as an object (receives the action shown by the verb) of the verb in a sentence
Anoop, I told you to clean your desk
Tony likes riding my scooter. I sometimes lend it to him
Reflexive Pronouns - myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb
Eg: I made this video myself
We organized the get together all by ourselves
Interrogative Pronouns - The words who, whom, whose, what, and which are called interrogative pronouns. (used to ask questions)
Eg: Who is he talking to?
Whom are you working with?
Which one do you prefer?
Whose is this diary?
What is the time?
Demonstrative Pronouns - The words this, these, that, and those are called demonstrative pronouns.
Eg: This is Tesnys car (We use this for singular in number)
These are your keys (These are used for the things multiple in number)
Those are your keys
Those who are away today must report to me
Look at those stars
I would like to go to that country
Three groups of pronoun - First-person, Second person, and third person.
First-person - First-person indicates the speaker (I, me, we, us)
Eg: I think I lost my key
We will go out today
Second person Person spoken to is called the second person (you)
Eg: You should come back on Saturday.
Third-person - The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the third person. (he, him, she. her, it, they, them)
Eg: Dinu used his mobile phone for meetings
Subject - does the action shown by the verb
Eg: Paul is my friend, he is a teacher
Object - receives the action shown by the verb
Eg: Anoop, I told you to clean the desk
An adverb describes the verb or adjectives in a sentence. It tells you about the action or the way something is done. Adverb helps to answer questions like How, When, Where, and To What extent things are done. Adverbs often end in 'ly'
Eg: Slowly, quietly, sharply, weekly, easily, early
I arrived too early
I ran quickly
I slept peacefully yesterday
She is always talking loudly
It is raining heavily
Adverbs of manner - describe the way something is done
He safely drove the car to the hospital
He played skillfully for the team
Adverbs of time - describe when something happens
I arrived early
Paul has arrived lately
Paul has just arrived
I will finish this work tomorrow
It is raining again
I will come today
Adverbs of place - tells where it happens
Dinu, come here
Where is Justin?
Please keep your mobile phones there
Let's have our family worship upstirs
A proposition is a word that connects one thing with another. It gives information such as direction, time, and place.
Usually, proposition comes after the verb and before the noun or pronoun.
The below list provides some of the propositions that we often use.
after, at, around, about, across, along, against, among, away from, apart from, between, behind, before, because of, by, beyond, but, during, except for, for, from, in, into, inside, instead of, near, on, onto, out of, over, of, since, through, to, toward, under, up, until, with
The ball is on the table
The ball is in the box
The ball is under the table
The ball is near to the car
Preposition of Time
This movie was released in the '90s (periods of time, seasons, a longer period of time)
I will complete this in five weeks
The earth will be a beautiful place in the coming future
I will be ready in 10 minutes.
Do not worry Paul, it all happened in the past
I woke up in the morning
I will be there in 10 minutes
The team managed to complete the work in two weeks rime
I was born in 1981
The last visit was in the middle of June
We arrived in time
We arrived on time
What is your plan on this weekend?
What is your plan at this weekend? (Specific time)
I will come at 10 PM
Our meeting will finish at 7:30 PM
I will meet you on Thursday (Day of the week)
I can come on Monday
It is a holiday on March 3rd.
We all need to be there by noon
At the moment, I am not free
Sam is busy at present.
We both reached at the same time
Please return my can by this Friday (No later)
Preposition of Place
My car key is in your pocket
Can you please come in?
Keep this luggage in your room
I like to swim in the lake
Shiji works in the translation team
Exception - He is on the board (Elected for a high-level committee)
There is a lot of sugar in this Juice
Do you have milk in your tea?
I live in India
I live in Cochin
She is in the car
I saw it in our book (always use in, for anything with paper, eg" book, comic, newspaper);
He was on the phone (Always use on anything related to electronic devices, except for email Eg:It was there in your email)
I saw it on a TV program
It was on the internet
The clock on the wall
He is coming on a Bus
He is living on 7th street
George live on the second floor of this building
Can you please sign on this paper?
Our closest supermarket is on 7th avenue
Asish is still at his office
I am standing at platform number 2
I will meet you at Platform number one
We have to stop at Jerrys house
I had my lunch at Mathew's house
I will meet you at Smitha's house
I am waiting by the car
They live near the junction
Preposition of Directions
Jonathan came into my room
She is in the room
She is gone into the house (movement)
He was thrown out of the campus (movement - outside)
Baby is trying to get on to the table (Movement towards upside)
He fell off from the cycle (Movement towards downside)
I jumped over the fence
The ball is under the table
The snake coiled around the tree
Come along with me
Can you see the bridge across the river?
The papers were spread across the table
the train came through a tunnel
Conjunction is a connecting word in a sentence. It can be used to connect words, phrases, and sentences.
Eg: or, and, but, so
Do you like coffee or tea?
I can come but not at 10 AM
We can divide conjunction into three categories. 1) Coordinative, 2) Subordinate, 3) Corelative
Coordinative Conjunction: Connects words that are independent of each other. We use them when we wanted to give equal emphasis on two main clauses. There are seven coordinating conjunctions. They are: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)
Eg: I eat at the Kochin bakery every day, for they serve the best snacks (explaining why, same as because)
She was tired the next day, for she was working all night.
I don't have rice and sugar at my home. (similar ideas)
Justin and Paul love trucking.
Paul did not like Math nor did he like English. (Two negative clauses)
By the way, neither Alex nor I drink.
George is very strict, but kind (Contrasting ideas)
I bought chicken but not the masala
Do you like coffee or tea? (Alternatives, Choice)
Did the butterfly’s wing come about by evolution? Or was it designed?
I haven’t seen that movie, yet so don’t tell me the story (contrasts the first statement)
He did not prepare the talk, yet it was nice
I am struggling to speak English fluently, so I have joined this course (reason)
It was raining heavily, so I stayed at home
Subordinating Conjunction: They unite independent and dependant clauses. (We can not separate the sentence) Some of the subordinative conjunctions are given below.
Time and Place
After, before, when, since, till, until, as soon as, once, whenever, where, whereas, wherever
as, because, since, so that, now that, as if, in order that,
though, although, even though, whereas
while, if, unless, than, whether, as much as, whereas, even if, even though, if only, in order to, so that
Who, Whoever, whose, whom
that, whatever, which
Eg: We took an umbrella (independent clause) since it was cloudy. (dependant clauses)
Since they are busy, I decided to wait.
I did not speak to him because I was angry with him
We want to clean the room before he comes
After Anoop left office, Asish played music
I met them when I was in Delhi
If you find out my phone, please let me know
You will not speak English unless you practice it
Although he speaks seldom, he says meaningful ideas
Though it's snowing, she went out
English class is very interesting whereas the maths class is boring.
You must decide whether you go today or tomorrow.
She went to the hall that my father went to
The car which I drive is very expensive
He drives an old car even though he is rich
When I was in your age, I used to play this game
As it was a holiday, we decided to go out
This is the place where we lived
Correlative Conjunction: always appear in pairs. This conjunction relates one sentence element to another.
Eg: either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also,
I can handle the classes for both computer hardware and software (Both clauses are true)
Both Paul and Susan are good at maths
I can drive either a car or a scooter. (Choice)
In my next weekend, I will either prepare Biriyani or Tandoori
In my opinion, Either Sunny or Jimmy will select for this Job
Neither Anoop nor Paul has liked the food (Both the choice are negative, opposite of both-and)
He not only plays the musical keyboard but also sings well
Not only Paul but also Shiji worked in this team
An interjection is a word that you say in between sentences or thoughts to express a sudden feeling.
Eg: Wow, Yahoo, Ouch, Oops, Aah
Wow! That's wonderful
Hey! What are you saying?
Oh! I am sorry to hear that
Well done! Keep it up
Hey! Come on
Tense in English grammar refers to the time(past present, or future) and aspect (Completed or uncompleted)
Eg: Time - Will Sing (future), Sings (Present), Sang (Past)
Aspect - will be singing (future), is singing (Present) was singing (Past)
There are 12 tenses in English grammar. They are
1) Present Temple, 2)Present Continuous, 3) Present Perfect, 4)Present Perfect continuous
5) Past Simple, 6) Past Continuous, 7) Past perfect, 8)Past Perfect Continuous
9) Future Simple, 10) Future Continuous, 11) Future Perfect, 12) Future Perfect Continuous
Situations where we use Present Simple
1) Expresses general truth or facts
The sun rises in the east
I work in a hospital
Sabu plays guitar
2) Customary action, or something which is permanent.
I read the Bible every day
3) Expresses frequency of an action
He never takes the scooter after the accident
4) Stative Verbs - Thoughts, opinions, feelings, emotions, 5 senses
I love Pizza
Our work starts at 8:00 AM
6) Actions that are happening in the near future
I have a program at 5:00 PM
For subjects I, we, you, they just use the verb. Such as read, play, like, live, work, do, have
For subjects he, she, it use the verb + s form such as reads, plays, likes, lives, works, does, has (Applies only for positive sentences)
She lives here
I live here
He is busy
He is not busy
Is he busy?
They are busy
They are not busy
Are they busy?
I do work on Saturdays
I don't work on Saturdays (Applies to you, we, they)
Do you work on Saturdays?
She works in this office
She doesn't work in this office
Does she work here? Yes, she does.
It doesn't work, we need to replace it
Does it work?
They work here
Do they work here?
Anoop does eat rice
Anoop doesn't eat rice
You play well
You do not play well
Shiji enjoys music
I go to college at 10:00 AM
Venad Express leaves at 6:30 PM
Paul rarely takes his car to the office
Do you work here?
Where do you live?
How often do you work?
02-02-01-Present Continuous/Present Progressive
Actions that are happening now or at present
For subjects he, she, it, use the be verb is
For subjects you, we, they use the be verb are
For the subject I use am
Add the ing form of the verb
Situations where we use Present Continous
1) Currently happening
Sabu is playing Guitar
I am learning English,
I am not learning English
Are you learning English?
They are learning English
Anoop is watching a video,
My computer is not working
The weather is nice, It is not raining now
We are having dinner now, can you please call me later?
2) Actions that are in progress, you may not be doing that at present
You are preparing for the exam,
I am doing exercise on these days
I am not doing exercise on these days
Anoop and Rahul are working at a translation office,
Saritha is preparing for her dance competition
Is Saritha preparing for her dance competition?
3) Actions that are happening in the near future
Shiji and I are going to Cochin tomorrow,
They are going to write their exam in June,
Shiji is meeting her friends tomorrow.
They are not going to write their exam in June
Are they going to write their exam in June?
Subject + have/has + Main Verb (Past Participle)
For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have
For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has
Do not use present perfect for finished times such as yesterday, last month, etc.
Can use for unfinished times such as today, this week, this month, etc.
Situations where we use Present Perfect
1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and its time is not important or unknown
I have done my work
I have been to China (Not important when they happened)
I have completed the translation work
Someone has eaten my food
2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and continue to the present
Sabu has played the guitar since 2018
They have been married for five years
I have lived here for three years
I have worked here since 2018
Anoop and Paul have known each other for ages
We haven't seen that film yet
3)For something that happened in the past but is important at present
I have lost my keys (Still keys are missing)
Paul has gone to the office, you can come back in the evening
4) To talk about actions that are happened in the recent past
I have just gone there
I have painted my home recently
I have just spoken to him
Sam has just seen his new manager
He has cleared the table just now
They have already finished it
George has recently been sick
5)Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now
I have seen that video several times
Smitha has visited us frequently
I have visited this place frequently
I have not been to the United States
It has not rained since last June
My classmates have not done any exams since last month
Tom has never eaten this food
Has Anoop completed his work? - Yes, he has or No, he has not
Have they completed the work? - Yes, they have or No, they have not
Have you ever been there?
How long have you been married?
How long have you known each other?
What books have you read?
Who has Anoop talked to?
Has Smitha had dinner?
Has he bought a new phone?
Have you ever visited China?
Have you eaten enough?
02-04-01-Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive
Used to connect past and present
Subject + have been/has been + Main Verb+ing
For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have been
For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has been
Stative verbs are not be used
Situations where we use Present Perfect Continuous
1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and still continues now
Sabu has been playing the guitar for the last 1 hour
I have been cooking breakfast
You have been studying English for sometime
Anoop has been learning Maths for sometime
He has been waiting here for five hours
Anoop and I have been working since 5 AM
Joyson has been practicing a lot
2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and it just finished now
I have been trying to call you for the past one hour
We have been waiting for you
I am tired because I have been studying all night
The road is wet because It has been raining
Have you been thinking to change your home?, Yes, I have or No I haven't
Have you been going to the hospital?
Has he been helping you? Yes he has or No he hasn't
Have you been learning to swim?
What have you been doing?
Why has he been feeling tired?
How has Anoop been doing?
You haven't been studying
Shiji has not been studying lately
Joy has not been eating breakfast these days
Stative Verbs (No Physical action involved)
I have been loving him a lot (Incorrect usage)
I love him a lot
He has been liking this food (Incorrect usage)
He has liked this food
They have been understanding the secrete recipe (Incorrect usage)
They have understood the secrete recipe
02-04-02-Difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous
1) Stative verbs are not be used with Present Perfect Continuous
I have known him for years
I have been knowing him for years (Wrong usage)
2) No real differences in some verbs such as Study, Live, Work in both tenses
I've lived in Kerala for three years
I've been living in Kerala for three years
I've studied music since 2020
I've been studying music since 2020
Paul has worked here for 1 year
Paul has been working here for 1 year
3) Impossible to express how many and how much with Present Perfect continuous
Smitha has eaten three pieces of Pizza this morning
Smith has been eating three pieces of Pizza this morning (Wrong usage)
4) Present Perfect focuses on the completion of the action, whereas Present Perfect continuous often focuses on the action itself
I have played the song
I have been playing the song
5) Present Perfect continuous can be used to talk about situations that are not permanent.
I have been sleeping badly
I have been getting up early for my Job
This tense mostly used by all of us.
Used to express anything that had happened in the past (It's finished and over)
Eg: I played
Subject (I, You, We, They, She, He, It) + Past Tense of the verb - Verb+ed (often)
Situations where we use Past Simple
1) Completed Past Events or Actions
Sabu Played the Guitar
They watched the film yesterday (Recent Past)
He lived here a long time ago (Distant Past)
Anoop talked to his overseer (One Action)
John came into my room, switched on the music, and sat down (Many Action)
3) Duration in past
They sat at the park all-day
We talked on the phone for one hour
I lived in Cochin for two years
4) Past Facts
I studied music when I was a kid
He didn't like vegetables before
Did you study in Cochin when you were a kid?
We did not work (didn't) work
Smitha did not call me
They did not pay the tuition fee
Did they work?
Did Smitha call you?
Did they pay the tuition fee?
Did they work yesterday?
When did they work?
How long did you wait for me?
03-02-01-Past Continuous/Past Progressive
Used to express past events and actions at the precise moment in past
It highlights a period of duration that continued in the past for any action or event.
Or to emphasize it went on for some time.
Subject + Past Tense of the to be verb (was, were, as a Helping verb) + Verb+Ing form
Subject + was/were + Verb+ing
Stative verbs are not be used (Know, hate, love, like, need, want, own)
For subjects I, He, She, It - Use was
For Subjects You, We, They Use were
Eg: I was playing from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM
Situations where we use Past Continuous
1) Period of time in the past
I was playing from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM
2) A particular moment in the past
They were studying at 11:00 AM
In 2009 we were living in Canada
3) Continuing when interrupted
They were studying when I arrived
4) Planned action in the past
I was thinking to call you (Think, have, feel - These verbs can be used both as Stative and Dynamic)
5) Polite request
I was wondering if you could help me
it was not working
I was not listening
I was not playing
I wasn't sleeping
You weren't working
It was not raining when we went out
Was it working?
Was he playing?
Were you working?
Where was he playing?
How long were they playing?
Where was Paul going?
Where were you going?
What were you doing at 3 PM on Friday?
To talk about two or more actions that happened in the past, and to express which one started first
Can express which one was started first among the two actions.
Express the first action in Past perfect Tense
Eg: When we arrived the train had left
The program had started before I arrived
Subject + had + Past Participle of the main verb
eg: I had played
Situations where we use Past Perfect
1) Short or long time in the past
I had cooked breakfast before the guest arrived (I'd cooked)
When I called him, he had gone to the office (He'd gone)
I had had my breakfast when I left home (I'd)
Before we moved, we had already sold our property (We'd)
He had worked in this office since 2020
2) Multiple actions in past
Before Paul constructing the new home,
he had prepared the plan,
he had seen few model houses,
he had obtained the necessary approvals.
I had not worked (hadn't)
I had not played
I had not paid the money
They had not called
Had you completed the work yesterday?
Had they gone already?
Had it played correctly? No, It hadn't
Where had you worked before joining here?
Who had you worked with earlier?
When had you worked there?
Have you had food before you left home? Yes I had
03-04-01-Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive
To talk about something that had started in the past and continued in the past.
Eg: I had been living in Kerala from 2000 to 2010
I had been working in Kerala before I moved to Delhi
Subject + had been + main verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)
Stative verbs are not to be used
Eg: They had been waiting for a long time
Paul had been feeling unwell since yesterday
Situations where we use Past Perfect Continuous
1)Past Events for a duration
It had been raining all day long
They had been waiting for a long time
2)Activity happening before another event
We had been practicing tennis before it started to rain (We'd)
3)To express the duration
They had been working on that project for six months (They'd)
Paul had been feeling unwell since yesterday
4)To express a pattern or routine in the past
I h:ad been practicing the songs every day before my piano stopped working (I'd)
5)To express the cause
He was very exhausted because he had been practicing the song all night.(He'd)
I had not been working (hadn't)
Had you been working on that project? Yes, he had or No he hadn't
Had you been planning a trip?
Where had you been working before?
How long had you been working?
Used to communicate about future, or after now.
We can express planned future with Present continuous or with the phrase going to
Eg: I going to meet Paul tomorrow, I'm meeting Paul tomorrow.
But if it is an unplanned or formal situations we use Future simple.
Eg: I will meet Paul tomorrow
Subject + will + main verb (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)
Do not use the contractions in formal sentences
Do not use will with conditional clauses
Situations where we use Future Simple
Formal and informal programs;
The convention will begin at 8:30 AM
I will come today
Planned or unplanned events
PLOTIT will release a new course on December 2nd.
I think he will come tomorrow
I will pay in cash
As per whether forecast, it will rain today
I don't think he will work tomorrow
I will be there in five minutes
Paul will pick you up from railway station
May be the program will finish in 1 hour
I will come back in 10 minutes
Tom will help you to complete the wok
I will see you, if I will visit Kerala (Wrong usage)
I will see you, if I visit Kerala
Same rule applies with when, as soon as, before, after
Tom will not help you to complete the wok
I will not come back in 10 minutes
Will you come back in 10 minutes?
Will you work tomorrow? Yes I will (No contraction) or No I won't (Informal)
Will you come on time? Yes I will
04-01-02-Shall or Will
Shall is an archaic usage. You will see shall instead of will in old books
We use shall when we offer something
Eg: Shall I get you a coffee?
We use shall when we ask something politely
Future Continuous - Shows it is continuous for some time, or for a period of duration in future
eg: I will be working from 8:00 AM to 10:AM
Subject + will be + verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)
Stative verbs are not to be used in future continuous.
Situations where we use Future Continuous
Duration of time
I will be travelling from 7th to 10th of next month
A moment in a period of time
I will be travelling on 8th of next month
Activities that are continues together
Next week, Paul will be taking classes on English and Jim will be presenting the slides
Will you be attending the meeting tomorrow?
Tom will not be working tomorrow
Will you be coming tomorrow?
Will Shiji be attending the party tomorrow? Yes, she will or No She won't
Will they be watching this movie?
How long they will be working?
Where they will be going?
04-03-01- Future Perfect
Future Perfect is an advanced tense, which can be used in:
1) An action that will be completed before a specific time in the future
2) An action that will be completed before an another action in the future
Subject + will have + Past Participle of the verb (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)
Eg: They will have finished the food before you reach
Situations where we use Future Perfect
Before a specific time in future
By next July, I will have finished my post graduation and IELTS exams
Tom will have arrived by 10:00 PM
Shiji will have left the office by 6:00 PM
We will have taken the vaccine before June
By next June, I will have been completed my 10 year service in this company
By 8:00 AM, Jim will have had his breakfast
Anoop will have finished the work by tomorrow.
Before a specific action
They will have finished the food before you reach
I will have prepared all the foods before the program starts
By the time he gets to the station, the train will have left
I will not have prepared all the foods before the program starts
Doctor will not have arrived by that time
Anoop will not have finished his work by tomorrow.
Will you have arrived by 6:00 PM?
Smitha, will you have arrived office by then?
Will She have left the office by 5:00 PM?
Will Anoop have finished the work by tomorrow?
04-04-01- Future Perfect Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous tense is also called Future Perfect Progressive Tense
We express the continuity of a future event, Emphasis goes to the future event's continuity.
Eg: By next week, I will have been studying the English course for one month
If two actions take place in the future, the first one which will be continued is Future Perfect Continuous Tense and the second one is Simple Present Tense.
Subject + will have been + verb + ing (I, You,We, They, He, She, It)
Stative verbs are not be used (know, believe, realise, love, hate, own, belong)
Situations where we use Future Perfect
Continuous event at a specific time in the future
Next years, I will have been completing 50 years of service in this company.
By the time I arrive in Kochi, I will have been travelling for 12 hours
Before another action in the future
Paul will have been travelling to London before he reach India
They will have been waiting there for one hour by the time I meet them.
They will not have been waiting there for one hour by the time I meet them.
Will I have been travelling for 12 hours?
Will you have been waiting for 2 hours?
Alacrity - Promptness, Eagerness, Readiness
Amass - Accumulate
Ascetic - Avoiding physical pleasure and living a simple life often for religious sake
Baffle - Confused, Unable to understand
Benefactor - Someone who gives money to help an organization, society, person
Beguile - to persuade, attract or interest someone, sometimes in order to deceive them
Bland - Dull or boring, lacking taste or strong flavors (for food)
Belligerent - Wish to like or argue
Cacophony - an unpleasant mixture of sounds, harsh sound
Candid - honest and telling the truth
Capricious - Changing mood or behavior suddenly and unexpectedly
Charisma - Some people have a natural ability to influence other people
Clandestine - Planned or done in secret
Colossal - Extremely large
Chilling - frightening
Deafening - Very noisy
Destitute - Very poor
Despondency - Heartache, Desolation
Excruciating - Very painful
Exuberant - Cheerful, profound, hearty, vivacious, ebullient
Hearken - Attend, Hear, Heed
Heave - Lift, pull, hoist, raise
Gleaming - Very Shiny
Paradisiacal - heavenly, divine, godlike, godly
Petrified - frightened
Rule the roost - be in complete control, Dominate
Revitalize - Boost, cheer
toss - lift, pull, haul
Void - Emptiness
Do not judge a book by its cover
The first impression is the last impression
Topic for discussion
Do you prefer a joint family or a nuclear family?