Situations where we use Present Simple
1) Expresses general truth or facts
The sun rises in the east
I work in a hospital
Sabu plays guitar
2) Customary action, or something which is permanent.
I read the Bible every day
3) Expresses frequency of an action
He never takes the scooter after the accident
4) Stative Verbs - Thoughts, opinions, feelings, emotions, 5 senses
I love Pizza
Our work starts at 8:00 AM
6) Actions that are happening in the near future
I have a program at 5:00 PM
For subjects I, we, you, they just use the verb. Such as read, play, like, live, work, do, have
For subjects he, she, it use the verb + s form such as reads, plays, likes, lives, works, does, has (Applies only for positive sentences)
She lives here
I live here
He is busy
He is not busy
Is he busy?
They are busy
They are not busy
Are they busy?
I do work on Saturdays
I don't work on Saturdays (Applies to you, we, they)
Do you work on Saturdays?
She works in this office
She doesn't work in this office
Does she work here? Yes, she does.
It doesn't work, we need to replace it
Does it work?
They work here
Do they work here?
Anoop does eat rice
Anoop doesn't eat rice
You play well
You do not play well
Shiji enjoys music
I go to college at 10:00 AM
Venad Express leaves at 6:30 PM
Paul rarely takes his car to the office
Do you work here?
Where do you live?
How often do you work?
02-02-01-Present Continuous/Present Progressive
Actions that are happening now or at present
For subjects he, she, it, use the be verb is
For subjects you, we, they use the be verb are
For the subject I use am
Add the ing form of the verb
Situations where we use Present Continous
1) Currently happening
Sabu is playing Guitar
I am learning English,
I am not learning English
Are you learning English?
They are learning English
Anoop is watching a video,
My computer is not working
The weather is nice, It is not raining now
We are having dinner now, can you please call me later?
2) Actions that are in progress, you may not be doing that at present
You are preparing for the exam,
I am doing exercise on these days
I am not doing exercise on these days
Anoop and Rahul are working at a translation office,
Saritha is preparing for her dance competition
Is Saritha preparing for her dance competition?
3) Actions that are happening in the near future
Shiji and I are going to Cochin tomorrow,
They are going to write their exam in June,
Shiji is meeting her friends tomorrow.
They are not going to write their exam in June
Are they going to write their exam in June?
Subject + have/has + Main Verb (Past Participle)
For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have
For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has
Do not use present perfect for finished times such as yesterday, last month, etc.
Can use for unfinished times such as today, this week, this month, etc.
Situations where we use Present Perfect
1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and its time is not important or unknown
I have done my work
I have been to China (Not important when they happened)
I have completed the translation work
Someone has eaten my food
2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and continue to the present
Sabu has played the guitar since 2018
They have been married for five years
I have lived here for three years
I have worked here since 2018
Anoop and Paul have known each other for ages
We haven't seen that film yet
3)For something that happened in the past but is important at present
I have lost my keys (Still keys are missing)
Paul has gone to the office, you can come back in the evening
4) To talk about actions that are happened in the recent past
I have just gone there
I have painted my home recently
I have just spoken to him
Sam has just seen his new manager
He has cleared the table just now
They have already finished it
George has recently been sick
5)Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now
I have seen that video several times
Smitha has visited us frequently
I have visited this place frequently
I have not been to the United States
It has not rained since last June
My classmates have not done any exams since last month
Tom has never eaten this food
Has Anoop completed his work? - Yes, he has or No, he has not
Have they completed the work? - Yes, they have or No, they have not
Have you ever been there?
How long have you been married?
How long have you known each other?
What books have you read?
Who has Anoop talked to?
Has Smitha had dinner?
Has he bought a new phone?
Have you ever visited China?
Have you eaten enough?
02-04-01-Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive
Used to connect past and present
Subject + have been/has been + Main Verb+ing
For subjects I, you, we, they use the helping verb have been
For subjects he, she, it use the helping verb has been
Stative verbs are not be used
Situations where we use Present Perfect Continuous
1) To talk about actions that are happened in the past and still continues now
Sabu has been playing the guitar for the last 1 hour
I have been cooking breakfast
You have been studying English for sometime
Anoop has been learning Maths for sometime
He has been waiting here for five hours
Anoop and I have been working since 5 AM
Joyson has been practicing a lot
2) To talk about actions that are started in the past and it just finished now
I have been trying to call you for the past one hour
We have been waiting for you
I am tired because I have been studying all night
The road is wet because It has been raining
Have you been thinking to change your home?, Yes, I have or No I haven't
Have you been going to the hospital?
Has he been helping you? Yes he has or No he hasn't
Have you been learning to swim?
What have you been doing?
Why has he been feeling tired?
How has Anoop been doing?
You haven't been studying
Shiji has not been studying lately
Joy has not been eating breakfast these days
Stative Verbs (No Physical action involved)
I have been loving him a lot (Incorrect usage)
I love him a lot
He has been liking this food (Incorrect usage)
He has liked this food
They have been understanding the secrete recipe (Incorrect usage)
They have understood the secrete recipe
02-04-02-Difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous
1) Stative verbs are not be used with Present Perfect Continuous
I have known him for years
I have been knowing him for years (Wrong usage)
2) No real differences in some verbs such as Study, Live, Work in both tenses
I've lived in Kerala for three years
I've been living in Kerala for three years
I've studied music since 2020
I've been studying music since 2020
Paul has worked here for 1 year
Paul has been working here for 1 year
3) Impossible to express how many and how much with Present Perfect continuous
Smitha has eaten three pieces of Pizza this morning
Smith has been eating three pieces of Pizza this morning (Wrong usage)
4) Present Perfect focuses on the completion of the action, whereas Present Perfect continuous often focuses on the action itself
I have played the song
I have been playing the song
5) Present Perfect continuous can be used to talk about situations that are not permanent.
I have been sleeping badly
I have been getting up early for my Job