01-Parts of Speech
Parts of speech are the categories of words based on their function within a sentence. There are eight parts of speech that we are learning.
1) Noun 2) Adjective 3) Verb 4) Pronoun 5) Adverb 6) Preposition 7) Conjunction 8) Interjection
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea:
Eg: My name is Paul
Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns.
Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things.
Eg: Doctor, Nurse, Teacher, Singer, Zeebra, Bird, Horse, Goat, Fish, Beach, Park, School, Stadium, Bed, Cake
Proper nouns are names for particular people, places, or things
Eg: Mary, Beethoven, Dr. James, Indian, Italian, Egypt, India, Monday, January, Mount Everest, Niagra falls
Tip: Proper noun always begins with a capital letter
Singular Noun - We use a singular noun when we are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing
Eg: A bus, A Butterfly
Plural Noun - We use Plural noun when we are talking about two or more people, animals, places, or things
Eg: Buses, Butterflies
Collective Noun - words for groups of people, animals, or things
Eg: A family, A band of musicians, A bunch of keys
Masculine Noun - words for men, boys, and male animals
Eg: Rooster, Bridegroom, Father, Uncle
Feminine Nouns - words for women, girls, and female animals
Eg: Hen, Bride, Mother, Aunt
Common-gender nouns - words used for both males and females
Eg: Dancers, Doctors,
Neuter nouns - words used for neither male nor female
Eg: Bench, Mirror
Adjectives are words that describe the noun. It answers the questions, What kind? Which one(s)? How many? How much?
Adjective of Quality- - Paul is a good teacher, This drink is very sweet
Adjective of Quantity- - I live in a small house
Adjective of Number - Johny paid one thousand rupees for the jacket
This is a useful bag – This is a useless bag
adjectives of origin - an Indian food, This is a Scottish drink
Some adjectives tell you the color of things - Roses are red
Some adjectives tell you the size of the nouns - She is very tall
The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare two people or things - Eg: old, older - The word than is often used with comparative objectives. Eg: I am older than John
The superlative form of an adjective is used to compare three or more nouns Eg: hot hotter hottest. Good, Better, Best
Eg: This is the hottest drink that I ever had
The verb in a sentence talks about some action or activity.
Eg: read, run, cook, sing
Paul is reading a book
I have watched this film.
Transitive verb - action has a definite recipient or object
eg: I am solving a maths problem, Shiji is painting the kitchen walls
Intransitive Verb - These verbs also show action but here there is no specific object on which the action is being done.
eg: I am solving, Shiji is painting
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun to avoid repeating it.
eg- I, you, they, it, we, she, he, him, her, us, them, me, myself, yourself, themselves, itself, who, whom, what, which, these, that, those
Eg: Joyson is a tech geek. He passed out in 2005. I was his junior. He used to study himself
My family and I live in a big city. We have a small apartment.
Personal Pronoun - They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject (does the action shown by the
verb) of the verb in a sentence.
Eg: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Eg: Paul is my friend. He is a teacher.
Personal pronoun also includes me, you, him, her, us, them. These pronouns are used as an object (receives the action shown by the verb) of the verb in a sentence
Anoop, I told you to clean your desk
Tony likes riding my scooter. I sometimes lend it to him
Reflexive Pronouns - myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb
Eg: I made this video myself
We organized the get together all by ourselves
Interrogative Pronouns - The words who, whom, whose, what, and which are called interrogative pronouns. (used to ask questions)
Eg: Who is he talking to?
Whom are you working with?
Which one do you prefer?
Whose is this diary?
What is the time?
Demonstrative Pronouns - The words this, these, that, and those are called demonstrative pronouns.
Eg: This is Tesnys car (We use this for singular in number)
These are your keys (These are used for the things multiple in number)
Those are your keys
Those who are away today must report to me
Look at those stars
I would like to go to that country
Three groups of pronoun - First-person, Second person, and third person.
First-person - First-person indicates the speaker (I, me, we, us)
Eg: I think I lost my key
We will go out today
Second person Person spoken to is called the second person (you)
Eg: You should come back on Saturday.
Third-person - The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the third person. (he, him, she. her, it, they, them)
Eg: Dinu used his mobile phone for meetings
Subject - does the action shown by the verb
Eg: Paul is my friend, he is a teacher
Object - receives the action shown by the verb
Eg: Anoop, I told you to clean the desk
An adverb describes the verb or adjectives in a sentence. It tells you about the action or the way something is done. Adverb helps to answer questions like How, When, Where, and To What extent things are done. Adverbs often end in 'ly'
Eg: Slowly, quietly, sharply, weekly, easily, early
I arrived too early
I ran quickly
I slept peacefully yesterday
She is always talking loudly
It is raining heavily
Adverbs of manner - describe the way something is done
He safely drove the car to the hospital
He played skillfully for the team
Adverbs of time - describe when something happens
I arrived early
Paul has arrived lately
Paul has just arrived
I will finish this work tomorrow
It is raining again
I will come today
Adverbs of place - tells where it happens
Dinu, come here
Where is Justin?
Please keep your mobile phones there
Let's have our family worship upstirs
A proposition is a word that connects one thing with another. It gives information such as direction, time, and place.
Usually, proposition comes after the verb and before the noun or pronoun.
The below list provides some of the propositions that we often use.
after, at, around, about, across, along, against, among, away from, apart from, between, behind, before, because of, by, beyond, but, during, except for, for, from, in, into, inside, instead of, near, on, onto, out of, over, of, since, through, to, toward, under, up, until, with
The ball is on the table
The ball is in the box
The ball is under the table
The ball is near to the car
Preposition of Time
This movie was released in the '90s (Month, Season, Year, Century,periods of time, seasons, a longer period of time)
I will complete this in five weeks
The earth will be a beautiful place in the coming future
I will be ready in 10 minutes.
Do not worry Paul, it all happened in the past
I woke up in the morning
I will be there in 10 minutes
The team managed to complete the work in two weeks rime
I was born in 1981
The last visit was in the middle of June
We arrived in time
We arrived here on Sunday (Day)
We arrived on time.
What is your plan on this weekend?
What is your plan at this weekend? (Specific time, Part of the day)
I will come at 10 PM
Our meeting will finish at 7:30 PM
I will be there at lunchtime
Shiji arranged a party for her friends at the weekend.
Shiji had been waiting for her friends arrival since morning.
Tonia was planning to return by evening. But Shiji did not let her go.
They waited until the other guests turned up to enjoy the dinner.
While Asish was singing the song, the others were dancing.
During the party Joyson
I will meet you on Thursday (Day of the week)
I can come on Monday
It is a holiday on March 3rd.
We all need to be there by noon
At the moment, I am not free
Sam is busy at present.
We both reached at the same time
Please return my can by this Friday (No later)
Preposition of Place
My car key is in your pocket
Can you please come in?
Keep this luggage in your room
I like to swim in the lake
Shiji works in the translation team
Exception - He is on the board (Elected for a high-level committee)
There is a lot of sugar in this Juice
Do you have milk in your tea?
I live in India
I live in Cochin
She is in the car
I saw it in our book (always use in, for anything with paper, eg" book, comic, newspaper);
He was on the phone (Always use on anything related to electronic devices, except for email Eg:It was there in your email)
I saw it on a TV program
It was on the internet
The clock on the wall
He is coming on a Bus
He is living on 7th street
George live on the second floor of this building
Can you please sign on this paper?
Our closest supermarket is on 7th avenue
Asish is still at his office
I am standing at platform number 2
I will meet you at Platform number one
We have to stop at Jerrys house
I had my lunch at Mathew's house
I will meet you at Smitha's house
I am waiting by the car
They live near the junction
Preposition of Directions
Jonathan came into my room
She is in the room
She is gone into the house (movement)
He was thrown out of the campus (movement - outside)
Baby is trying to get on to the table (Movement towards upside)
He fell off from the cycle (Movement towards downside)
I jumped over the fence
The ball is under the table
The snake coiled around the tree
Come along with me
Can you see the bridge across the river?
The papers were spread across the table
the train came through a tunnel
Conjunction is a connecting word in a sentence. It can be used to connect words, phrases, and sentences.
Eg: or, and, but, so
Do you like coffee or tea?
I can come but not at 10 AM
We can divide conjunction into three categories. 1) Coordinative, 2) Subordinate, 3) Corelative
Coordinative Conjunction: Connects words that are independent of each other. We use them when we wanted to give equal emphasis on two main clauses. There are seven coordinating conjunctions. They are: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)
Eg: I eat at the Kochin bakery every day, for they serve the best snacks (explaining why, same as because)
She was tired the next day, for she was working all night.
I don't have rice and sugar at my home. (similar ideas)
Justin and Paul love trucking.
Paul did not like Math nor did he like English. (Two negative clauses)
By the way, neither Alex nor I drink.
George is very strict, but kind (Contrasting ideas)
I bought chicken but not the masala
Do you like coffee or tea? (Alternatives, Choice)
Did the butterfly’s wing come about by evolution? Or was it designed?
I haven’t seen that movie, yet so don’t tell me the story (contrasts the first statement)
He did not prepare the talk, yet it was nice
I am struggling to speak English fluently, so I have joined this course (reason)
It was raining heavily, so I stayed at home
Subordinating Conjunction: They unite independent and dependant clauses. (We can not separate the sentence) Some of the subordinative conjunctions are given below.
Time and Place
After, before, when, since, till, until, as soon as, once, whenever, where, whereas, wherever
as, because, since, so that, now that, as if, in order that,
though, although, even though, whereas
while, if, unless, than, whether, as much as, whereas, even if, even though, if only, in order to, so that
Who, Whoever, whose, whom
that, whatever, which
Eg: We took an umbrella (independent clause) since it was cloudy. (dependant clauses)
Since they are busy, I decided to wait.
I did not speak to him because I was angry with him
We want to clean the room before he comes
After Anoop left office, Asish played music
I met them when I was in Delhi
If you find out my phone, please let me know
You will not speak English unless you practice it
Although he speaks seldom, he says meaningful ideas
Though it's snowing, she went out
English class is very interesting whereas the maths class is boring.
You must decide whether you go today or tomorrow.
She went to the hall that my father went to
The car which I drive is very expensive
He drives an old car even though he is rich
When I was in your age, I used to play this game
As it was a holiday, we decided to go out
This is the place where we lived
Correlative Conjunction: always appear in pairs. This conjunction relates one sentence element to another.
Eg: either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also,
I can handle the classes for both computer hardware and software (Both clauses are true)
Both Paul and Susan are good at maths
I can drive either a car or a scooter. (Choice)
In my next weekend, I will either prepare Biriyani or Tandoori
In my opinion, Either Sunny or Jimmy will select for this Job
Neither Anoop nor Paul has liked the food (Both the choice are negative, opposite of both-and)
He not only plays the musical keyboard but also sings well
Not only Paul but also Shiji worked in this team
An interjection is a word that you say in between sentences or thoughts to express a sudden feeling.
Eg: Wow, Yahoo, Ouch, Oops, Aah
Wow! That's wonderful
Hey! What are you saying?
Oh! I am sorry to hear that
Well done! Keep it up
Hey! Come on