Remote Learning

English Grammar

 

01-Parts of Speech

Parts of speech are the categories of words based on their function within a sentence. There are eight parts of speech that we are learning.

1) Noun 2) Adjective 3) Verb 4) Pronoun 5) Adverb 6) Preposition 7) Conjunction 8) Interjection

01-02-Noun

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea:

Eg: My name is Paul

 

Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. 

Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things.

Eg: Doctor, Nurse, Teacher, Singer, Zeebra, Bird, Horse, Goat, Fish, Beach, Park, School, Stadium, Bed, Cake

Proper nouns are names for particular people, places, or things

Eg: Mary, Beethoven, Dr. James, Indian, Italian, Egypt, India, Monday, January, Mount Everest, Niagra falls

Tip: Proper noun always begins with a capital letter

Singular Noun - We use a singular noun when we are talking about one person, animal, place, or thing

Eg: A bus, A Butterfly

Plural Noun - We use Plural noun when we are talking about two or more people, animals, places, or things

Eg: Buses, Butterflies

Collective Noun - words for groups of people, animals, or things

Eg: A family, A band of musicians, A bunch of keys

Masculine Noun - words for men, boys, and male animals

Eg: Rooster, Bridegroom, Father, Uncle

Feminine Nouns - words for women, girls, and female animals

Eg: Hen, Bride, Mother, Aunt

Common-gender nouns - words used for both males and females

Eg: Dancers, Doctors, 

Neuter nouns - words used for neither male nor female

Eg: Bench, Mirror

01-03-Adjective

Adjectives are words that describe the noun. It answers the questions, What kind? Which one(s)? How many? How much?

Example:

Adjective of Quality- - Paul is a good teacher, This drink is very sweet

Adjective of Quantity- - I live in a small house

Adjective of Number - Johny paid one thousand rupees for the jacket

This is a useful bag   –  This is a useless bag

adjectives of origin - an Indian food, This is a Scottish drink

Some adjectives tell you the color of things - Roses are red

Some adjectives tell you the size of the nouns - She is very tall

The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare two people or things - Eg: old, older - The word than is often used with comparative objectives. Eg: I am older than John

The superlative form of an adjective is used to compare three or more nouns Eg: hot hotter hottest. Good, Better, Best

Eg: This is the hottest drink that I ever had

01-04-Verb

The verb in a sentence talks about some action or activity.

Eg: read, run, cook, sing

Paul is reading a book

I have watched this film.

Transitive verb -  action has a definite recipient or object

eg: I am solving a maths problem, Shiji is painting the kitchen walls 

Intransitive Verb - These verbs also show action but here there is no specific object on which the action is being done. 

eg:  I am solving, Shiji is painting

01-05-Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a common noun or a proper noun to avoid repeating it.

eg- I, you, they, it, we, she, he, him, her, us, them, me, myself, yourself, themselves, itself, who, whom, what, which, these, that, those

Eg: Joyson is a tech geek. He passed out in 2005. was his junior. He used to study himself

My family and I live in a big city. We have a small apartment.

Personal Pronoun - They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject (does the action shown by the 
verb) of the verb in a sentence. 

Eg: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Eg: Paul is my friend. He is a teacher.

Personal pronoun also includes me, you, him, her, us, them. These pronouns are used as an object (receives the action shown by the verb) of the verb in a sentence

Anoop, I told you to clean your desk

Tony likes riding my scooter. I sometimes lend it to him

 

Reflexive Pronouns - myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves are called reflexive pronouns. They refer to the person or animal that is the subject of the verb

Eg: I made this video myself

We organized the get together all by ourselves

Interrogative Pronouns - The words who, whom, whose, what, and which are called interrogative pronouns. (used to ask questions)

Eg: Who is he talking to?

Whom are you working with?

Which one do you prefer?

Whose is this diary?

What is the time?

Demonstrative Pronouns - The words this, these, that, and those are called demonstrative pronouns.

Eg: This is Tesnys car (We use this for singular in number)

These are your keys (These are used for the things multiple in number)

Those are your keys

Those who are away today must report to me

Look at those stars

I would like to go to that country

Three groups of pronoun - First-person, Second person, and third person.

First-person - First-person indicates the speaker (I, me, we, us)

Eg: I think I lost my key

We will go out today

Second person Person spoken to is called the second person (you)

Eg: You should come back on Saturday.

Third-person - The person (or animal, or thing) spoken about is called the third person. (he, him, she. her, it, they, them)

Eg: Dinu used his mobile phone for meetings

Subject - does the action shown by the verb

Eg: Paul is my friend, he is a teacher

 

Object - receives the action shown by the verb

Eg: Anoop, I told you to clean the desk

01-06-Adverb

An adverb describes the verb or adjectives in a sentence. It tells you about the action or the way something is done. Adverb helps to answer questions like How, When, Where, and To What extent things are done. Adverbs often end in 'ly'

 

Eg: Slowly, quietly, sharply, weekly, easily, early

I arrived too early

I ran quickly 

I slept peacefully yesterday

She is always talking loudly

It is raining heavily

Adverbs of manner - describe the way something is done

He safely drove the car to the hospital

He played skillfully for the team

Adverbs of time - describe when something happens

I arrived early

Paul has arrived lately

Paul has just arrived

I will finish this work tomorrow

It is raining again

I will come today

Adverbs of place - tells where it happens

Dinu, come here

Where is Justin?

Please keep your mobile phones there

Let's have our family worship upstirs

01-07-Preposition

A proposition is a word that connects one thing with another. It gives information such as direction, time, and place.

 

Usually, proposition comes after the verb and before the noun or pronoun.

 

The below list provides some of the propositions that we often use. 

after, at, around, about, across, along, against, among, away from, apart from, between, behind, before, because of, by, beyond, but, during, except for, for, from, in, into, inside, instead of, near, on, onto, out of, over, of, since, through, to, toward, under, up, until, with

The ball is on the table

The ball is in the box

The ball is under the table

The ball is near to the car

Preposition of Time

This movie was released in the '90s (Month, Season, Year, Century,periods of time, seasons, a longer period of time)

I will complete this in five weeks

The earth will be a beautiful place in the coming future

I will be ready in 10 minutes.

Do not worry Paul, it all happened in the past

I woke up in the morning

I will be there in 10 minutes

The team managed to complete the work in two weeks rime

I was born in 1981

The last visit was in the middle of June

We arrived in time 

We arrived here on Sunday (Day) 

We arrived on time.

What is your plan on this weekend?

What is your plan at this weekend? (Specific time, Part of the day)

I will come at 10 PM

Our meeting will finish at 7:30 PM

I will be there at lunchtime

Shiji arranged a party for her friends at the weekend.

Shiji had been waiting for her friends arrival since morning. 

Tonia was planning to return by evening. But Shiji did not let her go.

They waited until the other guests turned up to enjoy the dinner.

While Asish was singing the song, the others were dancing.

During the party Joyson

I will meet you on Thursday (Day of the week)

I can come on Monday

It is a holiday on March 3rd.

We all need to be there by noon

At the moment, I am not free

Sam is busy at present.

We both reached at the same time

Please return my can by this Friday (No later)

Preposition of Place

My car key is in your pocket

Can you please come in?

Keep this luggage in your room

I like to swim in the lake

Shiji works in the translation team

Exception - He is on the board (Elected for a high-level committee)

There is a lot of sugar in this Juice

Do you have milk in your tea?

I live in India

I live in Cochin

She is in the car

I saw it in our book (always use in, for anything with paper, eg" book, comic, newspaper);

He was on the phone (Always use on anything related to electronic devices, except for email Eg:It was there in your email)

I saw it on a TV program

It was on the internet

The clock on the wall

He is coming on a Bus

He is living on 7th street

George live on the second floor of this building

Can you please sign on this paper?

Our closest supermarket is on 7th avenue

Asish is still at his office

I am standing at platform number 2

I will meet you at Platform number one

We have to stop at Jerrys house

I had my lunch at Mathew's house

I will meet you at Smitha's house

I am waiting by the car

They live near the junction

Preposition of Directions

Jonathan came into my room

She is in the room

She is gone into the house (movement)

He was thrown out of the campus (movement - outside)

Baby is trying to get on to the table (Movement towards upside)

He fell off from the cycle (Movement towards downside)

I jumped over the fence

The ball is under the table

The snake coiled around the tree

Come along with me

Can you see the bridge across the river?

The papers were spread across the table

the train came through a tunnel

01-08-Conjunction

Conjunction is a connecting word in a sentence. It can be used to connect words, phrases, and sentences.

Eg: or, and, but, so

Do you like coffee or tea?

I can come but not at 10 AM

We can divide conjunction into three categories. 1) Coordinative, 2) Subordinate, 3) Corelative

Coordinative Conjunction: Connects words that are independent of each other. We use them when we wanted to give equal emphasis on two main clauses. There are seven coordinating conjunctions. They are: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So (FANBOYS)

Eg: I eat at the Kochin bakery every day, for they serve the best snacks (explaining why, same as because)

She was tired the next day, for she was working all night.

I don't have rice and sugar at my home. (similar ideas)

Justin and Paul love trucking.

Paul did not like Math nor did he like English. (Two negative clauses)

By the way, neither Alex nor I drink.
George is very strict, but kind (Contrasting ideas)

I bought chicken but not the masala

Do you like coffee or tea? (Alternatives, Choice)

Did the butterfly’s wing come about by evolution? Or was it designed?
I haven’t seen that movie, yet so don’t tell me the story (contrasts the first statement)

He did not prepare the talk, yet it was nice

I am struggling to speak English fluently, so I have joined this course (reason)

It was raining heavily, so I stayed at home

Subordinating Conjunction: They unite independent and dependant clauses. (We can not separate the sentence) Some of the subordinative conjunctions are given below.

Time and Place

After, before, when, since, till, until, as soon as, once, whenever, where, whereas, wherever

Cause

as, because, since, so that, now that, as if, in order that, 

Contrast

though, although, even though, whereas

Condition

while, if, unless, than, whether, as much as, whereas, even if, even though, if only, in order to, so that

Relative Pronoun

Who, Whoever, whose, whom

Relative Adjective

that, whatever, which

Eg: We took an umbrella (independent clause) since it was cloudy. (dependant clauses)

Since they are busy, I decided to wait.

I did not speak to him because I was angry with him

We want to clean the room before he comes

After Anoop left office, Asish played music

I met them when I was in Delhi

If you find out my phone, please let me know

You will not speak English unless you practice it

Although he speaks seldom, he says meaningful ideas

Though it's snowing, she went out

English class is very interesting whereas the maths class is boring.

You must decide whether you go today or tomorrow.

She went to the hall that my father went to

The car which I drive is very expensive

He drives an old car even though he is rich

When I was in your age, I used to play this game

As it was a holiday, we decided to go out

This is the place where we lived

Correlative Conjunction: always appear in pairs. This conjunction relates one sentence element to another.

 

Eg: either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also, 

I can handle the classes for both computer hardware and software (Both clauses are true)

Both Paul and Susan are good at maths

I can drive either a car or a scooter. (Choice)

In my next weekend, I will either prepare Biriyani or Tandoori

In my opinion, Either Sunny or Jimmy  will select for this Job

Neither Anoop nor Paul has liked the food (Both the choice are negative, opposite of both-and)

He not only plays the musical keyboard but also sings well

Not only Paul but also Shiji worked in this team

01-09-Interjection

An interjection is a word that you say in between sentences or thoughts to express a sudden feeling.

Eg: Wow, Yahoo, Ouch, Oops, Aah

Wow! That's wonderful

Hey! What are you saying?

Oh! I am sorry to hear that

Well done! Keep it up

Hey! Come on